Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was born on July 1, (which was June 21, Old Style), 1646 and died in 1716. He was a German philosopher, mathematician, and political adviser, important both as a metaphysician and as a logician. His prominent place in the history of mathematics is due to his invention of the differential and integral calculus independently of Isaac Newton
In philosophy, Leibniz is most noted for his optimism. He coined the phrase “the best of all possible worlds” in his 1710 work “Essais de Théodicée sur la bonté de Dieu, la liberté de l’homme et l’origine du mal”(“Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man and the Origin of Evil”) where he claims that our Universe is, in a restricted sense, the best possible one that God could have created.
Critics of Leibniz argue that the world contains an amount of suffering too great to justify optimism: Voltaire’s “Candide” (1759), for example, was a satirical rejection of Leibniz’s optimistic view of the world.