26 September 46 BC – Julius Caesar dedicates a temple to his mythical ancestor Venus Genetrix in accordance with a vow he made at the Battle of Pharsalus.
Roman politician and general Julius Caesar was born in 100 BC of a patrician family, and rose through the political and military ranks of Republican Rome to become Consul in 59BC. He formed the First Triumvirate (alliance of three men holding power) with Pompey and Crassus and then conquered Gaul extending Rome’s empire. In 49 BC Caesar refused to give up his command and crossed the Rubicon (the frontier boundary of Italy) starting civil war.
He became Dictator in 48 BC, defeated his opponents and started a series of reforms, including the Roman calendar.
On the Ides of March (15 March) of 44 BC, he was assassinated in Rome by a group of conspirators including Brutus., his According to some historians, his last words were “Tu quoque, Brute, fili mi!”(You too, Brutus, my child!)
His death led directly to the end of the Roman Republic and the establishment of the Roman Empire under Caesar’s heir Augustus.
The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle in the Civil War. In 48 BC at Pharsalus (central Greece), Caesar and his allies confronted the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) and defeated it.
On the eve of that battle Caesar vowed a temple to Venus Victrix. He eventually decided to dedicate it to Venus Genetrix, the mother of Aeneas, and the mythical ancestress of the Julian family. (Gens Julia)
Venus Genetrix (Venus the Mother) is one of the numerous epithets given to Venus, which referred to her as goddess of motherhood and domesticity. As a personal ancestress of Julius Caesar’s lineage she was considered the divine ascendant of the Roman people.