J.J. Rousseau and Cats

“L’homme est né libre, et partout il est dans les fers. Tel se croit le maître des autres, qui ne laisse pas d’être plus esclave qu’eux.” Du contrat social (1762) – Jean-Jacques Rousseau né le 28 juin 1712 et mort en 1778 “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. Those who think… Read More J.J. Rousseau and Cats


Juneteenth, also called Emancipation Day, or Freedom Day, is an annual celebration commemorating the end of slavery in the United States It is observed annually on June 19 and its name is the linguistic blend of two words: June and nineteenth, a combination that is known as portmanteau word. On June 19, 1865, African Americans… Read More Juneteenth

Historical Fake News

Fake news is nothing new since governments and powerful individuals have always used information as a weapon to boost their support and suppress dissidence. During Roman times, disinformation was widespread. Conspirators used fake news about Julius Caesar appointing himself emperor to engender support for his assassination. Subsequently, Octavian famously used a campaign of disinformation to… Read More Historical Fake News

June 9, 1537: Sublimis Deus

On 9 June 1537 Pope Paul III unequivocally declared that Native Americans were rational beings with souls, “truly men” with the qualities and faults of other humans, and not beasts, therefore they should not be reduced to slavery (papal bull Sublimis Deus =The Sublime God)